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B.A. (1964), Brown University, Providence RI, 1964; linguistics (summa cum laude, high honors, Phi Beta Kappa).
M.A. (1967), PhD (1973), University of Chicago, Chicago IL; linguistics.
Research Assistantships (computer applications to language analysis), University of Chicago, summers, 1966-68.
Russian language (Harvard University; University of Michigan), summers 1962, 1963.
PRSA/NYU seminars: "The Speech as an Effective PR/PA Tool" (1981); "PR/PA Writing Workshop" (1982).
MEMBER, International Association of Forensic Linguistics
An academically-trained linguist with 30 years’ experience in the study and analysis of style and meaning.
ORIGINAL METHODOLOGY: My original, multi-dimensional approach to stylistic analysis goes beyond language elements and uses a proprietary method to identify a wide range of stylistic similarities and differences.
A language expert who has devoted a professional lifetime to the analysis of language and the understanding of language variation and stylistic nuance:
Doctoral dissertation (University of Chicago, 1973): an analysis of code-switching (i.e., variation in the speaking style of an individual). Relevant to authorship/plagiarism cases.
Undergraduate and graduate studies of English syntax, semantics, and style; in-depth understanding of language structure: (1) identify the vocabulary and grammatical choices that characterize an individual writer’s style. (2) Recognize errors that no native speaker would make and thus determine whether a document has been written by a speaker of a foreign language. Relevant to authorship, plagiarism/copyright, and contract interpretation cases.
Twelve years of teaching English linguistics and composition (including graduate seminars in stylistics and in the structure and process of written language): (1) the correlation between a writer’s level of education and his/her deviations from Standard English; (2) the particular locutions favored by individual writers. Relevant to authorship/plagiarism cases.
Twenty years as a corporate speechwriter/ghostwriter: deep theoretical and practical understanding of the nature and variation of individual style. Relevant to authorship/plagiarism cases.
Examination/analysis of thousands of student papers, corporate publications, and countless other written documents: formulate expert opinion on plagiarism and anonymous or disputed authorship by judging whether particular words, phrases, or other linguistic elements could occur by chance in two separate documents – or whether the documents are the product of the same hand. Also relevant to interpretation of contracts, wills, laws, regulations.
Extended practice in transcription (basic linguistics courses, doctoral theses, speechwriting); qualified to evaluate the accuracy of transcriptions (from handwriting to typing and from audio to writing).